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VOA慢速:联邦通信委员会遭挫败

发布时间:2010-04-13 16:13  浏览:1405 次  已上传2个录音

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This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.
Two rulings in the United States could change how information is controlled online and in our bodies.
On Tuesday, a federal appeals court in Washington ruled that current laws limit government power over Internet traffic.
The court rejected an order against America's biggest cable company.
In two thousand seven, officials ordered Comcast to stop interfering with file-sharing programs used by its Internet customers.
Comcast said big files slowed its network.
All three judges agreed that the Federal Communications Commission had no legal basis to tell Comcast what to do.
The F.C.C. supervises communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable.
But its power over Internet and wireless communications has long been questioned.
Now, unless Congress changes the law, network providers can slow or block services of competitors.
The decision comes just weeks after the F.C.C. announced its National Broadband Plan.
The aim is faster, lower-cost connections for almost all Americans.
The F.C.C. says the court "in no way disagreed with the importance of preserving a free and open Internet."
The agency could seek new powers to regulate Internet service and enforce net neutrality.
That is the idea that all content on the Web should be treated equally.
In a different case, a ruling last week in New York has renewed debate about who can "own" genetic information.
Myriad Genetics received patents for methods to identify women with genes that create a high risk of breast cancer.
Patents involving the two genes made Myriad the only company able to offer the costly tests.
But federal Judge Robert Sweet cancelled seven of twenty-three patents related to the genes.
He said they violate the law against patents for products of nature.
Yet companies and universities often claim human genes as intellectual property.
An estimated twenty percent of human genes have been patented in the United States.
Judge Sweet said the patent office thinks DNA should be treated like any other chemical compound.
The idea is that its removal from the body and purification makes it into something different that can be patented.
The judge said many consider this a "lawyer's trick" to avoid the ban on the direct patenting of DNA, but the result is the same.
Cancer activists and researchers fought the patents. Myriad is appealing the ruling.
And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter. I'm Steve Ember.

[参考译文]
这里是VOA 特别英语经济报道。
美国的两项裁决将改变信息在网络和我们体内的控制方式。
周二,华盛顿联邦诉讼法庭裁决,现行的法律限制政府在网络通信方面的权利。
该法庭驳回了对美国最大的有线电视公司的命令。
2007 年,相关官员命令康卡斯特停止干预其网络客户使用的文件分享项目。
康卡斯特表示,大型文件拖慢了其网络速度。
三名法官一致认为,联邦通信委员会命令康卡斯特怎样做没有司法依据。
F.C.C 通过无线电,电视,电线,卫星和电缆对通信进行监控。
但是其对互联网和无线通信的监管权却一直受到质疑。
现在,除非国会更改法律,否则网络供应商有权减缓或阻塞竞争对手的服务。
该裁决出台于F.C.C 宣布国家宽带计划几周之后。
该计划的目标是为大部分美国人提供速度更快,费用更低的网络连接。
F.C.C 表示,法庭“在保护自由公开的互联网方面完全没有异议”。
F.C.C 可以争取新的权力,调控互联网服务,推进网络中立性。
网络中立性指的是网络上所有的内容应该受到平等的对待。
在另外一个案件中,上周纽约的一份裁决重新点燃了关于谁可以享有基因信息的争论。
Myriad Genetics 公司获取了鉴别女性乳腺癌基因的专利。
涉及两种基因的专利使得Myriad 成为唯一一家可以提供这种价格昂贵的检测的公司。
但是联邦法官取消了23 个与这些基因有关的专利中的7 个。
他说,这违反了反对自然产品获得专利的法律规定。
然而,许多公司和大学经常声称人类基因是知识产权。
在美国,已有大约20%的人类基因获取了专利。
Sweet 法官说,专利办公室认为,DNA 应该与其他化合物同样对待。
他们认为,基因从体内的分离和提纯使得基因成为与众不同的产品,因此可以获得专利。
这位法官表示,许多人认为这是“律师的诡计”,是为了绕开对DNA 直接申请专利的禁令。
但是结果还是相同的。癌症积极分子和研究人员都但对这些专利。Myriad 正在申请上诉。
这里是VOA 特别英语经济报道。编辑Mario Ritter。我是Steve Ember。

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